Magnetic materials are generally divided into hard magnetic materials and soft magnetic materials.
Permanent magnetic materials are materials that have a wide hysteresis loop, high coercivity, and high remanence, and can maintain constant magnetic properties once they are magnetized. They are also called hard magnetic materials. In practice, the permanent magnet material works in the second quadrant demagnetization part of the deep magnetic saturation and hysteresis loop after magnetization. Commonly used permanent magnet materials are divided into Al-Ni-Co-based permanent magnet alloys, Fe-Cr-Co-based permanent magnet alloys, permanent magnet ferrites, rare earth permanent magnet materials and composite permanent magnet materials.
Soft magnetic material is a magnetic material with low coercivity and high permeability. Soft magnetic materials are easy to magnetize and demagnetize, and are widely used in electrical and electronic equipment. The most widely used soft magnetic materials are iron-silicon alloys (silicon steel sheets) and various soft ferrites.
Permanent magnet material use:
1. The main applications based on the principle of electromagnetic force are: speakers, microphones, meters, buttons, motors, relays, sensors, switches, etc.
2. The applications based on the principle of magnetoelectric action mainly include: magnetron and traveling wave tube and other microwave electronic tubes, picture tubes, titanium pumps, microwave ferrite devices, magnetoresistive devices, Hall devices, etc.
3. Applications based on the principle of magnetic force mainly include: magnetic bearings, concentrators, magnetic separators, magnetic chucks, magnetic seals, magnetic blackboards, toys, signs, password locks, photocopiers, thermometers, etc.
4. Other applications include: magnetic therapy, magnetized water, magnetic anesthesia, etc.
Application of soft magnetic materials: mainly used for magnetic antennas, inductors, transformers, magnetic heads, earphones, relays, vibrators, TV deflection yokes, cables, delay lines, sensors, microwave absorbing materials, electromagnets, accelerators, high-frequency acceleration cavities, Magnetic field probe, magnetic substrate, magnetic field shielding, high-frequency quenching energy accumulation, electromagnetic chuck, magnetic sensitive element (such as magnetocaloric material as switch).